Government is the group of people who take care of important functions such as providing safety to the citizens and protecting the country from external attacks. It is also responsible for maintaining law and order within the country.

Government originated as people discovered that it was easier to protect themselves if they stayed together in groups. It is the recognition of this principle that forms the basis for sovereignty, or the right of a group (later a country) to be free from outside interference.

People have different ideas about what governments should do. Some believe they should support an ideal such as egalitarianism, which seeks to destroy socioeconomic inequalities. Others believe they should prioritize national security over individual liberty, resulting in decisions such as the tapping of phones or the restriction of what newspapers can publish.

The word “government” is derived from the Latin verb gubernare, meaning “to steer.” It describes the active agency invested with the power to manage a political unit or organization, more specifically a State. There are many types of governments, which are classified according to whether one person exercises the power (a monarchy), a select group of people exercise the power (an aristocracy), or the citizenry as a whole exercises the power (a democracy).

A central part of a government is its judicial branch, which evaluates and enforces laws. A President may have a number of advisors and ministers that make up the Cabinet, which is tasked with making key decisions for the nation. There are also other officials who make up the governmental system, including a Vice President, and a Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.

Some governments have a military force that defends the nation against foreign invaders. There are many other tasks that a government must perform, such as providing education, public transportation, housing for the homeless, and care for the elderly. Governments also have to ensure that common goods are protected, such as clean air and water.

Most governments are structured with three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. The constitution of a State or country determines the modality of formation and powers that belong to the government. The United States is a constitutional republic, with a democratic form of government. The Federal Government has the power to levy taxes, borrow money, coin money, regulate commerce, establish standards of weights and measures, govern Post Offices, and regulate postal rates. Under the Tenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, all other powers are reserved for the State and its people. The States often model their Governments after the Federal Government. The Constitution of the United States requires all State governments to have a republican form of Government. Each has a Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and other judicial officials. They make sure that the laws of the State are followed and abide by the Constitution. This helps to maintain the rule of law and prevents tyranny by a single individual or a small minority of the population.

By mei0123